Archive for November, 2011

Chapter 18 – Instructional Design in Business and Industry

Types of training to executive:

  • educational
  • technical

Instructional design:

  • analyzing human performance problems
  • identifying problems
  • considering multiple solutions

What is the nature of Instructional Design in Corporate Settings?

  • Sole Designer – Project Manager/Media producer
  • Team Member Leader – often found in large scale environments and typically virtual environments
  • External Designer/Consultant – hired to produce a product

I think all 3 have their virtues. A Sole Designer has complete control and full insight on company policies. Team Member Leaders work in complex projects usually with other Instructional Designers, there is plenty of room for growth and learning in this kind of setting. External Designers have the flexibility of working in multiple types of projects and different companies throughout the world. Consultants are not limited to exclusive work for one company.

What are the constraints in Instructional Design?

  • Contextual – time and resources availabe
  • Locus of control – controlling events that affect them
  • Tools and techniques implemented – instructional design models

Some designer related constraints:

  • Perceived necessity – understanding the constraints imposed by the client and be willing to educate client and team to understand clients needs
  • Theoretical perspectives – designers own beliefs as to how people learn influences the design of a product
  • Expertise – roughly achieved with 10 years of experience in the field

Trends in Design and Development:

  • Cross cultural training – defined by learner cultural factors
  • Societal cultural factors – the way problems are solved
  • Learner cultural factors – how the design is implemented
  • Cross-cultural workforce – environmental analysis

How do you achieve Better, Faster and Cheaper Designs?

Rapid Prototyping – Paper based or rigged path design

  • Technology Based Training Delivery – usually helps understand collaborative or self studies
  • Advanced Evaluation Techniques – training to learn and evaluate transfer of knowledge
  • Designer as a Researcher – helps keep the designer up to date with new design trends in the field, such as designer blogs like Web Designer Depot

Chapter 19 – Instructional Design Opportunities in Military Education and Training Environments

I found this chapter to be one of the most interesting ones in the book, specially since Instructional Design was born during the 1930’s-1940’s for quick WWII training environments.

Some military issues to consider:

  • Funding – low and high tech models are recommended and keeping within budget is of outmost importance since these are limited government funds
  • Delivery Environment – training represents a large portion of the day to day activities in the military. Also making sure that instructions can be delivered in all kinds of environments is essential. Ranging from a training classroom to the actual field
  • Advanced Distributed Learning – providing distributed learning environments at a global scale with Life Long Learning in mind
  • Future Trends to consider – international responsibilities and new technologies
  • Jointness – remember that fighting and teamwork happens in a combined force in military settings (you aren’t designing for an individual, but for a large group of people in multiple learning environments)

Particular attention has to be devoted to the content generated in these kind of instructional technologies for it can mean the difference between life and death for military personnel.

Chapter 20 – Performance, Instruction, and Technology in Health Care Education

Instructional Methods in Health Care Education:

  • training as a form of simulation
  • traditional to problem based curriculum learning
  • detailed evaluation of performance

Similar to the Military Design Models, Health Care Education is responsible for the care of individuals, meaning the importance of accurate diagnosis and treatment that can mean the difference between the life and death of a patient.

A great example of instructional design in Public Health can be seen with The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland. In particular with the Center for Communications Program.

The Center for Communications Program aims to change:

  • Social and behavior change communication
  • Knowledge Management
  • Training
  • Strategic advocacy
  • Research and Evaluation

A large team of Instructional Designers and SME (Subject Matter Experts) set out to identify problems in Public Health and create the necessary instructional design using the ADDIE model.

They usually design for various media including:

  • Paper, pamphlets, posters, books, comic books
  • Radio, Television Dramas, Games
  • Cellphones, websites, videos

Chapter 21 – Instructional Designers and P-12 Technology Integration

Good P-12 teaching focuses first on teaching, then on technology. The authors caution not to rely on technology.

A great example is when an overhead projector doesn’t work in class. If the instructor is prepared with an alternate lesson plan, or paper resources then he or she can quickly bounce back from a technical glitch.

Technology Integration in the educational system is usually a contract with the school system.

3 types of Instructional Design Development:

  1. System – large scale development for the development of curriculum (hardware/software systems used for instruction)
  2. Product – computer based learning tutorials
  3. Classroom – teacher led instruction (learning by doing)

Classroom Model – ASSURE (effective instruction):

  • Analyze your learner
  • State standards and objectives (Standardized tests)
  • Select strategies (always rely on several strategies for instruction)
  • Utilize media (appropriate media that is relevant to the learning experience)
  • Require learner participation (engaging students by active participation)
  • Evaluate and revise (iteration, helps the lessons grow, also helps eliminate unsuccessful instruction

NTeQ Model – Integrating Technology for iQuiry (problem based lessons focused on student use of technology)

basing problems on real data as opposed to simulation helps learners identify with the material thus the lessons becoming transformative

The authors mention the importance of analyzing, evaluating and creating products that reflect the learning

Technology Integration of 21st Century Skills:

  • 21st Century Content – global awareness
  • Learning and thinking skills – thinking, communication, collaboration, information literacy
  • Life skills – leadership and ethics

The modern classroom has to seamlessly integrate all these competencies into the curriculum, thus connecting the student to the world and the world to the student.

Chapter 22 – 5 University Roles for Designers from 3 Nations

A look at Australia, Japan and the United States.

Junko Nemoto, former Assistant Professor, Kumamoto University (Japan)

He talks about the importance of having several experts in the Instructional Design field:

  • Information Technology
  • Educational Policy
  • Intellectual Property

He believes that having good educational support in education and informational technologies is essential. He also mentions the importance of learning and growing for teachers working with Master and Doctoral students.

Jacquie McDonald, Instructional Designer (Associate Professor), University of Southern Queensland (Australia)

Her focus is on Academic Distance Education and the Government Health Training sector.

She works with websites that teach design. She also helps faculty with distance learning and instructional design process.

She mentions the Australian teaching model places emphasis on student centered learning as well as life-long learning and work integrated learning.

As an Instructional Designer she applies theory to course design, implementation and evaluation.

Brenda Litchfield, Faculty Development, University of South Alabama, United States of America

She mentions that as an Instructional Designer you will be well prepared to design, develop and implement instruction for faculty in higher education and in any learning faculties.

The idea of designing instruction for multiple learning faculties really appeals to me. The possibilities for growth are endless.

She goes on to say how Instructional Designers can help:

  • improve teaching and evaluation skills
  • plan and deliver orientation
  • provide workshops in technology skills
  • negotiation skills
  • presentation skills

Peter Albion, Associated Professor, University of Southern Queensland, Australia

When referring to Instructional Design he says that teaching should reflect recent and current developments in the field.

A strong focus should be placed on doing research and helping others with research. This helps you keep up to date in the field and actively growing in further Instructional Design ideas.

He also mentions the importance of providing service to faculty, the university and the professional community of educators at large.

Group work is what fosters learning environments.

Jack Dempsey, Full Professor, University of South Alabama, United States

He talks about how tenure is a plateau not a summit. He’s very concerned with the role many professor take after achieving tenure.

I have a musician friend that plays principle bassoon in an orchestra. He was telling me that musicians in the orchestra that have tenure tend to be really difficult and weary of new learning mechanisms. Interestingly enough, my friend has tenure and he’s constantly pushing himself forward to learn new and innovative techniques. His hunger for knowledge hasn’t been trumped by conformity.

Jack Dempsey mentions the importance of revising, creating and innovating for teachers.

He also suggests that instructional designers learn to explain what they do to people in common terms, to find a mentor for further growth and to develop good rapport with faculty members throughout other colleges and fields.

A good designer is never satisfied with their final design. Learning is a life-long process. We must strive to help each other grow as people and as learners.




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Chapter 10 – Evaluation in Instructional Design

The authors talk about 2 forms of evaluation for instructional design:

  • Formative – when evaluation is done to support a process of improvement. Example – focus groups and prototyping to gage user response and understanding of the design implemented.
  • Summative – evaluation done to understand conclusion. Example – A final evaluation done on the results from the previous mentioned focus group and prototyping evaluation results.

The authors also mention the importance of evaluation for the assessment of mastering knowledge. We see this done in many classroom environment through testing. I personally believe that essay writing gives a deeper understanding of the learner’s knowledge than multiple choice. I’m thinking back in particular to being an undergrad student and memorizing information for tests that I don’t think I could recall at all today. Yet, I have a deeper recollection of writing out essays on topics ranging from english literature to earth sciences.

For the logic of evaluation we want to select

  • criteria for method of evaluation
  • performance standards
  • data performance and level of performance
  • make a final judgement (results)

Some evaluations methods proposed

Stufflebeam mentions a 4 step evaluation process:

  • Context – what environment it will be used in (a needs evaluation), example: a Kiosk in an airport as opposed to a Kiosk in a loud subway station.
  • Input – what resources will be used for evaluation
  • Process evaluation – development, implementation and effectiveness of the evaluation
  • Product evaluation – success in product outcome

To best understand the full scope of a project, evaluation should go through a process of iteration.

Rossi – 5 Domain Evaluation Model (tailored to fit local needs, resources and types of programs):

  • Needs Assessment
  • Theory for the program
  • Implementation Assessment
  • Scientific evaluation – this is the impact assessment
  • Economic evaluation – this is the efficiency assessment

Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model – created for evaluating training programs: 4 Different Levels of Evaluation

  1. Reaction – how do people react to the learning experience
  2. Learning – what was learned in the training
  3. Behavior (transfer of knowledge) – was their On the Job behavior changed
  4. Results – did the training lead to final results desired

I remember training in at work to switch from Quark Xpress to Adobe InDesign for Desktop Publishing. Many of my coworkers were hesitant to change, but were very surprised at how similar both platforms were. Our boss performed an evaluation of our new knowledge during training. This information was collected and documented for future implementation of similar training programs in our company.

Brinkerhoff’s Success Case Method:

The focus here is SCM (Success Case Method):

  • plan success case study
  • construct visual impact model
  • conduct survey that identifies best and worst case scenarios
  • conduct in-depth interviews
  • communicate evaluation findings

How an evaluation is reported back to individuals being evaluated is crucial in helping people understand not only their concern but similar attitudes and/or changes that need to occur in group settings.

Patton’s Utilization-Focused Evaluation (U-FE):

  • evaluation used for specific intended use
  • participatory evaluation approach
  • meta evaluation – the evaluation of the evaluation

Meta evaluation can be tricky. If the information provided is not true then an evaluation of the evaluation is gonna be flawed.

Chapter 11 – Intro to ROI (Return of Investment)

The focus of this chapter is the importance of money and value and how it is perceived by stakeholders (those who are employing, paying your salaries, own companies, making big investments and placing their trust in a profit return)

Levels of Data:

0 – Input – the scope of the effort

1 – Reaction – the reaction to the project

2 – Learning and Confidence – learning to use the project

3 – Application and Implementation – effective implementation

4 – Impact and Consequences – making the connection between project and business

5 – ROI – the monetary impact compared to project costs

We collect and document data to show the impact of the project. It is far easier to follow trued and tried methods when an ROI is expected than to spend too much time and money researching.

When doing data analysis we have to convert data to monetary value. This kind of visual helps stakeholders understand the benefits of their investments.

When a project manager is writing a proposal he or she has to make a solid case of validating that a solution is needed.

Consistency of data and data analysis helps give projects direction and the credibility for stakeholders.

Chapter 12 – Managing On-Site and Virtual Design Teams

A successful project manager makes objectives and expectation clear for both their team and their clients.

Managing is the process of working with individual to execute the plan at hand.

Leadership in a successful managers is seen when goals and objectives are achieved. Motivation is a key factor.

A successful manager possesses 3 types of abilities:

  1. cognitive – diagnosing and assessing group environment
  2. behavioral – adapting group behavior to solve goal or objective
  3. process skills – communication with groups

Subsequently successful management recognizes the importance of tailoring their management skills for the specific situation. Not all groups can be managed in the same manner, just like not all projects can be approached in the same manner.

Example: Managing different generations in the workplace. This article discusses the 3 major different generations that exist in today’s workforce.

  • boomers
  • Gen X
  • Gen Y/Millennials

A successful manager should recognize the strengths and weakness of all 3 generations in order to achieve a favorable group outcome.

Effective communicators always provide feedback. Most people who don’t receive feedback at work feel a sense of displacement.

SME (Subject Matter Experts) – in order to build good relationships with them, it is important to include them in the project development from early on. People who participate in projects from inception to completion provide better feedback when change is needed.

How do you build a productive Team?

Be personable. Provide clear feedback. Be open to questions.

Create morale. Build team traditions. Get together outside of work.

The Future of Instructional Project Management

What we are seeing is a trend at remote managing. Many large scale projects involve several project managers, sometimes in different parts of the world and in different time zones.

A successful project manager leads by example while providing the direction and motivation needed for their team.

Chapter 13 – Managing Scarce Resources in Training Organizations.

The 3 main resources a project manager has:

  • people
  • time
  • money

Scoping a project helps define and sort out the resources needed.

3 kinds of resource models:

  1. scarcity – when demand exceed supply
  2. equilibrium – when supply equals demand
  3. inefficiency – over abundance or lack of abundance (extreme opposites of the spectrum)

Many projects are guided by the Economic Cycle (the state of the business environment)

Stages of Economic Cycle:

  • Growth
  • Peak
  • Decline
  • Trough (lowest point in business)

Project managers have to consider the magnitude and duration of economic cycles. Observing that short cycles tend to volatile while long cycles tend to be easier to manage.

Anticipation to change in the economic cycle can help save a project from economic disaster. Thus it is highly recommended for project managers to move parallel to the current economic cycle.

Resources monitored through the economic cycle are not fixed but dynamic.

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