Posts Tagged ‘design’

Chapter 18 – Instructional Design in Business and Industry

Types of training to executive:

  • educational
  • technical

Instructional design:

  • analyzing human performance problems
  • identifying problems
  • considering multiple solutions

What is the nature of Instructional Design in Corporate Settings?

  • Sole Designer – Project Manager/Media producer
  • Team Member Leader – often found in large scale environments and typically virtual environments
  • External Designer/Consultant – hired to produce a product

I think all 3 have their virtues. A Sole Designer has complete control and full insight on company policies. Team Member Leaders work in complex projects usually with other Instructional Designers, there is plenty of room for growth and learning in this kind of setting. External Designers have the flexibility of working in multiple types of projects and different companies throughout the world. Consultants are not limited to exclusive work for one company.

What are the constraints in Instructional Design?

  • Contextual – time and resources availabe
  • Locus of control – controlling events that affect them
  • Tools and techniques implemented – instructional design models

Some designer related constraints:

  • Perceived necessity – understanding the constraints imposed by the client and be willing to educate client and team to understand clients needs
  • Theoretical perspectives – designers own beliefs as to how people learn influences the design of a product
  • Expertise – roughly achieved with 10 years of experience in the field

Trends in Design and Development:

  • Cross cultural training – defined by learner cultural factors
  • Societal cultural factors – the way problems are solved
  • Learner cultural factors – how the design is implemented
  • Cross-cultural workforce – environmental analysis

How do you achieve Better, Faster and Cheaper Designs?

Rapid Prototyping – Paper based or rigged path design

  • Technology Based Training Delivery – usually helps understand collaborative or self studies
  • Advanced Evaluation Techniques – training to learn and evaluate transfer of knowledge
  • Designer as a Researcher – helps keep the designer up to date with new design trends in the field, such as designer blogs like Web Designer Depot

Chapter 19 – Instructional Design Opportunities in Military Education and Training Environments

I found this chapter to be one of the most interesting ones in the book, specially since Instructional Design was born during the 1930’s-1940’s for quick WWII training environments.

Some military issues to consider:

  • Funding – low and high tech models are recommended and keeping within budget is of outmost importance since these are limited government funds
  • Delivery Environment – training represents a large portion of the day to day activities in the military. Also making sure that instructions can be delivered in all kinds of environments is essential. Ranging from a training classroom to the actual field
  • Advanced Distributed Learning – providing distributed learning environments at a global scale with Life Long Learning in mind
  • Future Trends to consider – international responsibilities and new technologies
  • Jointness – remember that fighting and teamwork happens in a combined force in military settings (you aren’t designing for an individual, but for a large group of people in multiple learning environments)

Particular attention has to be devoted to the content generated in these kind of instructional technologies for it can mean the difference between life and death for military personnel.

Chapter 20 – Performance, Instruction, and Technology in Health Care Education

Instructional Methods in Health Care Education:

  • training as a form of simulation
  • traditional to problem based curriculum learning
  • detailed evaluation of performance

Similar to the Military Design Models, Health Care Education is responsible for the care of individuals, meaning the importance of accurate diagnosis and treatment that can mean the difference between the life and death of a patient.

A great example of instructional design in Public Health can be seen with The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland. In particular with the Center for Communications Program.

The Center for Communications Program aims to change:

  • Social and behavior change communication
  • Knowledge Management
  • Training
  • Strategic advocacy
  • Research and Evaluation

A large team of Instructional Designers and SME (Subject Matter Experts) set out to identify problems in Public Health and create the necessary instructional design using the ADDIE model.

They usually design for various media including:

  • Paper, pamphlets, posters, books, comic books
  • Radio, Television Dramas, Games
  • Cellphones, websites, videos

Chapter 21 – Instructional Designers and P-12 Technology Integration

Good P-12 teaching focuses first on teaching, then on technology. The authors caution not to rely on technology.

A great example is when an overhead projector doesn’t work in class. If the instructor is prepared with an alternate lesson plan, or paper resources then he or she can quickly bounce back from a technical glitch.

Technology Integration in the educational system is usually a contract with the school system.

3 types of Instructional Design Development:

  1. System – large scale development for the development of curriculum (hardware/software systems used for instruction)
  2. Product – computer based learning tutorials
  3. Classroom – teacher led instruction (learning by doing)

Classroom Model – ASSURE (effective instruction):

  • Analyze your learner
  • State standards and objectives (Standardized tests)
  • Select strategies (always rely on several strategies for instruction)
  • Utilize media (appropriate media that is relevant to the learning experience)
  • Require learner participation (engaging students by active participation)
  • Evaluate and revise (iteration, helps the lessons grow, also helps eliminate unsuccessful instruction

NTeQ Model – Integrating Technology for iQuiry (problem based lessons focused on student use of technology)

basing problems on real data as opposed to simulation helps learners identify with the material thus the lessons becoming transformative

The authors mention the importance of analyzing, evaluating and creating products that reflect the learning

Technology Integration of 21st Century Skills:

  • 21st Century Content – global awareness
  • Learning and thinking skills – thinking, communication, collaboration, information literacy
  • Life skills – leadership and ethics

The modern classroom has to seamlessly integrate all these competencies into the curriculum, thus connecting the student to the world and the world to the student.

Chapter 22 – 5 University Roles for Designers from 3 Nations

A look at Australia, Japan and the United States.

Junko Nemoto, former Assistant Professor, Kumamoto University (Japan)

He talks about the importance of having several experts in the Instructional Design field:

  • Information Technology
  • Educational Policy
  • Intellectual Property

He believes that having good educational support in education and informational technologies is essential. He also mentions the importance of learning and growing for teachers working with Master and Doctoral students.

Jacquie McDonald, Instructional Designer (Associate Professor), University of Southern Queensland (Australia)

Her focus is on Academic Distance Education and the Government Health Training sector.

She works with websites that teach design. She also helps faculty with distance learning and instructional design process.

She mentions the Australian teaching model places emphasis on student centered learning as well as life-long learning and work integrated learning.

As an Instructional Designer she applies theory to course design, implementation and evaluation.

Brenda Litchfield, Faculty Development, University of South Alabama, United States of America

She mentions that as an Instructional Designer you will be well prepared to design, develop and implement instruction for faculty in higher education and in any learning faculties.

The idea of designing instruction for multiple learning faculties really appeals to me. The possibilities for growth are endless.

She goes on to say how Instructional Designers can help:

  • improve teaching and evaluation skills
  • plan and deliver orientation
  • provide workshops in technology skills
  • negotiation skills
  • presentation skills

Peter Albion, Associated Professor, University of Southern Queensland, Australia

When referring to Instructional Design he says that teaching should reflect recent and current developments in the field.

A strong focus should be placed on doing research and helping others with research. This helps you keep up to date in the field and actively growing in further Instructional Design ideas.

He also mentions the importance of providing service to faculty, the university and the professional community of educators at large.

Group work is what fosters learning environments.

Jack Dempsey, Full Professor, University of South Alabama, United States

He talks about how tenure is a plateau not a summit. He’s very concerned with the role many professor take after achieving tenure.

I have a musician friend that plays principle bassoon in an orchestra. He was telling me that musicians in the orchestra that have tenure tend to be really difficult and weary of new learning mechanisms. Interestingly enough, my friend has tenure and he’s constantly pushing himself forward to learn new and innovative techniques. His hunger for knowledge hasn’t been trumped by conformity.

Jack Dempsey mentions the importance of revising, creating and innovating for teachers.

He also suggests that instructional designers learn to explain what they do to people in common terms, to find a mentor for further growth and to develop good rapport with faculty members throughout other colleges and fields.

A good designer is never satisfied with their final design. Learning is a life-long process. We must strive to help each other grow as people and as learners.




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Chapter 10 – Evaluation in Instructional Design

The authors talk about 2 forms of evaluation for instructional design:

  • Formative – when evaluation is done to support a process of improvement. Example – focus groups and prototyping to gage user response and understanding of the design implemented.
  • Summative – evaluation done to understand conclusion. Example – A final evaluation done on the results from the previous mentioned focus group and prototyping evaluation results.

The authors also mention the importance of evaluation for the assessment of mastering knowledge. We see this done in many classroom environment through testing. I personally believe that essay writing gives a deeper understanding of the learner’s knowledge than multiple choice. I’m thinking back in particular to being an undergrad student and memorizing information for tests that I don’t think I could recall at all today. Yet, I have a deeper recollection of writing out essays on topics ranging from english literature to earth sciences.

For the logic of evaluation we want to select

  • criteria for method of evaluation
  • performance standards
  • data performance and level of performance
  • make a final judgement (results)

Some evaluations methods proposed

Stufflebeam mentions a 4 step evaluation process:

  • Context – what environment it will be used in (a needs evaluation), example: a Kiosk in an airport as opposed to a Kiosk in a loud subway station.
  • Input – what resources will be used for evaluation
  • Process evaluation – development, implementation and effectiveness of the evaluation
  • Product evaluation – success in product outcome

To best understand the full scope of a project, evaluation should go through a process of iteration.

Rossi – 5 Domain Evaluation Model (tailored to fit local needs, resources and types of programs):

  • Needs Assessment
  • Theory for the program
  • Implementation Assessment
  • Scientific evaluation – this is the impact assessment
  • Economic evaluation – this is the efficiency assessment

Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model – created for evaluating training programs: 4 Different Levels of Evaluation

  1. Reaction – how do people react to the learning experience
  2. Learning – what was learned in the training
  3. Behavior (transfer of knowledge) – was their On the Job behavior changed
  4. Results – did the training lead to final results desired

I remember training in at work to switch from Quark Xpress to Adobe InDesign for Desktop Publishing. Many of my coworkers were hesitant to change, but were very surprised at how similar both platforms were. Our boss performed an evaluation of our new knowledge during training. This information was collected and documented for future implementation of similar training programs in our company.

Brinkerhoff’s Success Case Method:

The focus here is SCM (Success Case Method):

  • plan success case study
  • construct visual impact model
  • conduct survey that identifies best and worst case scenarios
  • conduct in-depth interviews
  • communicate evaluation findings

How an evaluation is reported back to individuals being evaluated is crucial in helping people understand not only their concern but similar attitudes and/or changes that need to occur in group settings.

Patton’s Utilization-Focused Evaluation (U-FE):

  • evaluation used for specific intended use
  • participatory evaluation approach
  • meta evaluation – the evaluation of the evaluation

Meta evaluation can be tricky. If the information provided is not true then an evaluation of the evaluation is gonna be flawed.

Chapter 11 – Intro to ROI (Return of Investment)

The focus of this chapter is the importance of money and value and how it is perceived by stakeholders (those who are employing, paying your salaries, own companies, making big investments and placing their trust in a profit return)

Levels of Data:

0 – Input – the scope of the effort

1 – Reaction – the reaction to the project

2 – Learning and Confidence – learning to use the project

3 – Application and Implementation – effective implementation

4 – Impact and Consequences – making the connection between project and business

5 – ROI – the monetary impact compared to project costs

We collect and document data to show the impact of the project. It is far easier to follow trued and tried methods when an ROI is expected than to spend too much time and money researching.

When doing data analysis we have to convert data to monetary value. This kind of visual helps stakeholders understand the benefits of their investments.

When a project manager is writing a proposal he or she has to make a solid case of validating that a solution is needed.

Consistency of data and data analysis helps give projects direction and the credibility for stakeholders.

Chapter 12 – Managing On-Site and Virtual Design Teams

A successful project manager makes objectives and expectation clear for both their team and their clients.

Managing is the process of working with individual to execute the plan at hand.

Leadership in a successful managers is seen when goals and objectives are achieved. Motivation is a key factor.

A successful manager possesses 3 types of abilities:

  1. cognitive – diagnosing and assessing group environment
  2. behavioral – adapting group behavior to solve goal or objective
  3. process skills – communication with groups

Subsequently successful management recognizes the importance of tailoring their management skills for the specific situation. Not all groups can be managed in the same manner, just like not all projects can be approached in the same manner.

Example: Managing different generations in the workplace. This article discusses the 3 major different generations that exist in today’s workforce.

  • boomers
  • Gen X
  • Gen Y/Millennials

A successful manager should recognize the strengths and weakness of all 3 generations in order to achieve a favorable group outcome.

Effective communicators always provide feedback. Most people who don’t receive feedback at work feel a sense of displacement.

SME (Subject Matter Experts) – in order to build good relationships with them, it is important to include them in the project development from early on. People who participate in projects from inception to completion provide better feedback when change is needed.

How do you build a productive Team?

Be personable. Provide clear feedback. Be open to questions.

Create morale. Build team traditions. Get together outside of work.

The Future of Instructional Project Management

What we are seeing is a trend at remote managing. Many large scale projects involve several project managers, sometimes in different parts of the world and in different time zones.

A successful project manager leads by example while providing the direction and motivation needed for their team.

Chapter 13 – Managing Scarce Resources in Training Organizations.

The 3 main resources a project manager has:

  • people
  • time
  • money

Scoping a project helps define and sort out the resources needed.

3 kinds of resource models:

  1. scarcity – when demand exceed supply
  2. equilibrium – when supply equals demand
  3. inefficiency – over abundance or lack of abundance (extreme opposites of the spectrum)

Many projects are guided by the Economic Cycle (the state of the business environment)

Stages of Economic Cycle:

  • Growth
  • Peak
  • Decline
  • Trough (lowest point in business)

Project managers have to consider the magnitude and duration of economic cycles. Observing that short cycles tend to volatile while long cycles tend to be easier to manage.

Anticipation to change in the economic cycle can help save a project from economic disaster. Thus it is highly recommended for project managers to move parallel to the current economic cycle.

Resources monitored through the economic cycle are not fixed but dynamic.

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Week #5 (Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology) – Robert A. Reiser, John Dempsey

Chapter 32 – Using Rich Media Wisely

What media is used for instruction is very important, but more importantly how it is delivered.

There are two types of learning approaches in instructional design:

  1. Technology centered approach – passive approach where the learner is not taken into account
  2. Learner centered approach – active approach where the learner is involved and encouraged to participate

The two memory styles in which we learn:

  • Working memory is conscious deliberate learning where information is processed
  • Long term memory is the prior knowledge, where our database of information lies

How media is selected, organized and integrated into learning determines how people will learn.

Chapter 36 – Diversity and Accessibility

A new trend we are witnessing today in design and instruction is (UD) Universal Design.

Universal Design emphasizes diversity and all the benefits of inclusion. A good example is how assisted technologies consider learners with disabilities. The key here is to find a balance between content and context.

With UD we can also provide broader accessibility to people in different markets and through the use of different languages. We have seen this very present in many ATM machines with multiple language selection options for the user.

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Week #5 (Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology) – Robert A. Reiser, John Dempsey

Chapter 16 – Knowledge Management and Learning: Perfect Together

Knowledge Management is the process of how we manage information, share and use it. How data is transformed into information.

The authors list 4 types of knowledge:

  1. Explicit – physical knowledge that exists out there, like in a website, magazine, book
  2. Tacit – knowledge of experience and insight. That knowledge we experience through action and reaction
  3. Common Knowledge – shared knowledge. This is knowledge that everyone needs to know. An example is the code of conduct of a school or company
  4. Undiscovered Knowledge – hidden knowledge that hasn’t been uncovered yet. This is seen in the hidden talents we all possess. A good example in our field is having a student come in with a new theory (way of thinking) about learning and possibly creating and adding a new theory to the field

A good design team shares valuable information and knowledge thus building a competitive advantage. This can be seen in the success of the Eames Office. One of the most creative design teams of our modern time.

Good knowledge management success is normally attributed to building in stages. Think big but start small. Pay attention to the details.

A successful team codifies (documents), collaborates (shares knowledge) and utilizes access (synchronization of common knowledge) to knowledge.

Because learning has become more social than ever, knowledge and learning work perfect together. This can be seen today in Web 2.0

Chapter 17 – Informal Learning

Informal learning is work based learning. Today we see more and more people collaborating in online content and information management. Web 2.0 allows users to build and maintain communities without the need of much programming.

The fact that you can create a cooking blog and share it with people all around the world supports this notion. It can also be seen in the comments section of many online publications where people are providing informal feedback that can translate to informal learning.

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Week #5 (Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology) – Robert A. Reiser, John Dempsey

Chapter 7 – Designing for Problem Solving

Instructional Design focuses on the importance of learning to solve problems, this helps enhance meaning making.

The authors make note of Cognitive Flexibility Theory and Cognitive Scaffolding. Cognitive Flexibility Theory recognizes the complexity of learning and importance of multiple approaches at learning. We see this in practice when people access a website. Hyperlinking and having the ability to jump around in a non-linear fashion allows for multiple approaches at getting to a desired subject.

In the Cognitive Scaffolding Theory the focus is on the tools and support provided when learning is first introduced to a student. In analogical encoding we use mapping to illustrate scenarios that allow the user to compare contrast through a series of scenarios/analogies. Prediction, questioning, arguing for or against proposed solutions and modeling fall under the scaffolding theory. Content measurement and Empirical validation help in providing solutions and solving problems.

Chapter 8 – Instructional Theory and Technology for a Postindustrial World

The authors talk about the problem with the current educational system. In principal it is designed for sorting out students (smart and dumb) not for learning.

A look at some universal methods of instruction:

  • Task Centered – instruction should use a progression of increasingly complex tasks.
  • Demonstration – a how to. demonstration of the skill.
  • Application – instruction should help learner apply the skill.
  • Activation – organizing new knowledge, recall information.
  • Integration – publicly demonstrate new knowledge or skill. share knowledge.

The core ideas for the Postindustrial Paradigm of Instruction:

  • Learning focused vs. Sorting focused
  • Learning centered vs. Teacher centered
  • Learning by doing vs. Teacher presenting
  • Attainment based vs. Time based (progress by achievement)
  • Customized vs. Standardized instruction
  • Collaborative vs. Individual
  • Enjoyable vs. Unpleasant

Learning in todays American Educational System carries the stigma of boredom. If we are to revolutionize the educational system we need to focus on the individual needs of each school. The cultural aspects. Engaging students to participate and provide feedback as to what learning is working for them.

I personally find that I do terrible at Standardized Tests but when I’m given a topic and asked to elaborate in an essay form then the experience becomes pleasant. There is something inherent in humans that enjoys teaching others what we know.

The authors go on to say, “the best way to learn something is to teach it”.

Record keeping is a good way to keep students engaged in learning. Keeping a personal blog, journal, vlog or website allows students to go back and reference and document their learning growth.

Chapter 9 – Motivation, Volition and Performance

The authors talk about the importance of motivation in learning. How does one achieve volition and improve on your performance?

In instructional design we talk about the motivation of the viewer/user/learner. The authors talk about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as good learning tools.

Intrinsic motivation is when the learner engages in an activity for self pleasure. I remember a time when I spent a week learning about the different countries in Africa. I found this intrinsic motivation came to me after booking a flight to Egypt with some friends.

Extrinsic motivation is when a learner engages in activity for a reward. This is seen in classrooms around America. Keeping a blog to get a good grade. Its also seen in the work environment where working hard on a project might result in a promotion.

The authors note that motivation in general tends to happens when there is a gap in current knowledge. Also when we can identify it as problem solving and reaching a goal.

Performance is seen to improve in learners when they find the motivation to backup their actions and beliefs. This is typically seen when someone is talking about a topic they feel passionate about. If they go out and keep educating themselves on it, then their performance (knowledge base) continues to improve with time.


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Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology – Robert A. Reiser, John Dempsey

Chapter 6 – The Learning Sciences: Where they came from and what it means for instructional designers

Here the authors illustrate how Instructional Design has evolved.

First we have the departure from behaviorist models of learning and understanding followed by the emergence of cognitive science and finally the rise of computer technology.

The authors refer to Papert’s belief that learning can take place in interaction with tools of construction. Papert also believed that learners construct knowledge as they make sense of the world around them.

This I believe to be very true. I still remember being young and trying to make sense of the world around me. Every time something became clear and understood I was able to quickly learn and identify it for future reference. What I find strange is how my ability to learn has changed. What I thought I learned and knew when I was 5 is not the same when I go back to it 30 years later. This always leads me to believe that I’m constantly making new sense of the world around me. Constructing new meaning even from prior knowledge.

The authors talk about Vygotsky’s belief that culture deeply affects learning. Vygotsky’s (ZPD) Zone of proximal development explored the idea of how learning happens collectively and in turn advances individual learning. We see this in the animal kingdom. A lioness will teach her cubs survival methods. Its with these tools that an older cub can fend for themselves.

One learning science I am particularly drawn to is Situated Learning. Situated Learning believes that learning in a classroom transfers right back into the outside world and creates a new learning experience. For both environments to bridge conditions in the classroom have to reflect those in the outside world.

I had a teacher in high school ask us to bring lyrics to our favorite songs for analysis. We all brought in something from the “real world” and applied it to learning. This exercise helped us to understand each other’s taste in music as well as how particular words moved and inspired us as individuals. I found myself actively seeking out some of my classmates music at the record store later that week.

The authors reflect on the importance of learning sciences to instructional design. “For an instructional designer using learning science they can contribute to the knowledge base by documenting and reflecting on the design process, and using it as a means to collect information that can drive theory”

This approach at learning is critical at understanding how our field works. It also makes for good instructional design. Our field has changed drastically in the past 20 years. I can’t wait to be see where it will be in another 20 years time.


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Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology – Robert A. Reiser, John Dempsey

Chapter 5 – Constructivism in Practical and Historical Context

The authors reflect that in constructivism learning is a process of meaning making by interaction with the world. Problem-solving activities are regarded with high importance to help create new learning. Learning is seen as a social activity that happens in communities. A good example can be seen in the online game Quest Atlantis. Here children are exposed to a world of problem-solving that is virtual and also carries over into real world activities that are carried out in their local communities. The key element of QA is for children to work together through a series of activities that foster new learning.

In constructivism the learner also is encouraged to take responsibility of their learning. When you take responsibility for your learning you own your learning. Disney’s Club Penguin is a good example of this. Club Penguin’s purpose is to provide a place where children can play games and become global citizens. The games are learning devices that empower the children with knowledge and encourage community engagement.

Constructivism notes the importance of the learner taking center stage while the teacher steps of to the side and observes how the learner learns.

Some instructional models linked to constructivism:

  • PBL (Problem Based Learning) – here instruction is based around a problem. (IDEO is a company that utilizes this model in their approach at design)
  • Anchored Instruction – learning is based around a story or anchor. (a good example is using everyday problems to illustrate a math problem. this helps create a relationship between the real world and learning at hand. I personally like the counting pennies example. This kind of activity anchors learning with experience.
  • Cognitive Apprenticeship – learning through a master. We see this happen in most job places. You spend some time receiving training from someone in a company who is a (master) and you are the apprenticeship.
  • Intentional Learning Environments – learning through environment. This model refers to collaborate problem solving. A good example is learning a foreign language by immersing yourself in that culture. Someone living in France for 2 months will learn and understand French better than learning it through a book.

The authors also mention Higher Order Learning, how learning can be implemented in the real world, Affect and Emotion, connecting learning through the emotions, and Out of class Performance, internships.

The authors reflect that good Instructional Design depends on good theories of knowledge, learning and instruction.

What you ultimately want is to build a direct relationship with the world of learning. To really focus on the details of the doing.

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